Armenian aggression against Azerbaijan
Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan
Facts and developments
The contemporary Azerbaijani statehood takes its roots back from the Kingdom of Caucasian Albania. The area presently known as Nagorno-Karabakh (Mountainous Karabakh) was a part of that Kingdom since its formation. According to the Antic sources there were 26 tribal unions in Albania, ethnic composition of which was autochthonous Caucasian and Turkic. Albania with its autocephalous church possessed a rich and unique culture, where alphabet in use was composed of 52 letters. In a year 313 A.D. Christianity was confirmed as a state religion in Albania. Turbulent situation did not let it to keep its independence for a long time. In a year 705 A.D. the Kingdom was totally subordinated to the Arab Khalifat. After this, the Khalifat having an alliance with Armenians against Byzantium, with the aim of elimination of the close relations between Albania and Byzantium, subjugated Albanian Church to the Armenian Grigorian Church.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Karabakh always was part of the state formations existed in the territory of present Azerbaijan led by Turkic Muslim dynasties and inhabited by Turkic speaking people.
18th century was marked with an establishment of the Karabakh Khanate, which was headed by the Turkic (Azerbaijani) dynasty of Djavanshirs. This was the Azerbaijani Khanate ruled by the hereditary dynastic tradition of Azerbaijani nobles, predominantly populated by ethnic Azerbaijanis.
A rule of Russian Empire was imposed on the Khanate after the signature of the Treaty of Kurakchay (1805) between the Khan of Karabakh and the Russian Empire. After the take-over of the overall Caucasian region, the Russian Empire pursued divide et impera policy through different means with a view to establishing and strengthening its total control. Enforced change of demographic situation in the region by massive resettlement of the Armenians to Karabakh from Persia and the Ottoman Empire was an extensive package of measures of such kind. After the Russo-Iranian (1806-1813, 1826-1828) and Russo-Ottoman (1828-1829) wars the ethnic composition of the region was substantially changed. Only during the period of 1828-1830 more than 40.000 Armenians from Persia and 84.600 from Ottoman Empire were settled to Azerbaijan.
In 1828, by the order of the Russian Emperor, an Armenian Oblast was formed in the territories of occupied Azerbaijani Khanates (Irevan and Nakhchivan). This was done with the aim of creating a buffer zone in the backyard of the Ottoman Empire and to divide the Turkic speaking band into separate parts. Abolition of the Albanian Church by the Russian Czar in 1836 resulted in ultimate Grigorianization (Armenization) of the Albanian population.
May 28 - Declaration of independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). On the same day the independence of the Republic of Armenia was declared;
May 29 - The government of ADR yielded the town of Irevan (presently Yerevan, the 30% of population were people of different ethnicities, including Armenians, whereas the 70% majority were Azerbaijanis) to the Government of the Republic of Armenia, which had declared its independence, but had no political center.
June 4 - The Batum Peace Treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the three South-Caucasian republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia). The Ottoman Empire was the first state, which recognized independence of the South-Caucasian republics. According to the Treaty on the Armenian side signed by the Prime Minister of the Dashnak Government, the borders of Armenia have been defined and consequently the total area of this state was specified, as 10.000 sq. km. composed of Erivan and Echmiadzin districts with 400.000 residents. Naturally Karabakh was the part of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic;
June-July - Contrary to the agreed terms of peaceful and good neighborly relations, Republic of Armenia began the large-scale aggression against Azerbaijan. Occupation of the town of Nakhchivan, massive attacks on Azerbaijani villages of Zangezur and Karabakh resulted in devastation of 115 villages and killing of 7729 Azerbaijani civilians. Around 50.000 people were displaced from their homelands;
January 11 - De-facto recognition of independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan by the Supreme Council of the Allied Nations;
April 27 - Occupation of Azerbaijan by the 11th Red Army of Soviet Russia;
April 28 - Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ceased its existence and the Soviet rule was established in Azerbaijan;
July 5 - The Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Russia (bolshevik) decided: "Proceeding from the necessity to maintain peace between Moslems and Armenians, economic ties between Highland and Lowland Karabakh, its uninterrupted ties with Azerbaijan, to keep Mountainous Karabakh within the Azerbaijan SSR and to grant broad regional autonomy."
At the same time with granting the right of self-rule to the Armenians of the Mountainous Karabakh, predominantly Azerbaijani populated regions of Zangezur and part of Kazakh district (in total 9.000 km?) was given to Armenia. In total, 20.000 km? Azerbaijani territories had been given to Armenia in the Soviet years;
July 7 - Decree of the Central Executive Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan SSR on "Formation of the Autonomous Region in the Mountainous Karabakh with an administrative center in Khankendi" (The name of the town was renamed from Khankendi to Stepanakert after Stepan Shaumian, famous bolshevik leader, in September 1923). At the same time, three hundred thousands of Azerbaijanis who have lived in compact settlements in Armenia were refused even cultural autonomy by the governments of both the USSR and the Armenian SSR.
Azerbaijani population of Armenia always lived under pressure and this resulted in massive organized deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia. According to official data, more than fifty thousands of Azerbaijanis from Armenia were resettled in the Kur-Araz lowlands regions of Azerbaijan between the years of 1948-1953;
November 18 - The statement of A. Aganbegian, the Kremlin counselor, on expediency of uniting Mountainous Karabakh with the Armenian SSR. This statement played a crucial role in firing national hatred and fomenting the conflict;
November-December - Demonstrations calling to annex the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region (hereinafter - NKAR) of the Azerbaijan SSR to the Armenian SSR were held in Yerevan (Armenia);
January - Massive deportation of Azerbaijanis living in the Armenian SSR to Azerbaijan. By decision of the authorities, these refugees were settled in Baky and Sumgayit;
February - First victims of the conflict: two civilian Azerbaijanis were killed in Askeran (Nagorno-Karabakh);
February 28-29 - Massive disorders in Sumgayit took place. As a result 32 people were killed of different ethnicity, including Armenians, Azerbaijanis and Russians. The group of criminals was led by ethnic Armenian Eduard Grigorian who personally killed 5 Armenians and raped 6 Armenian women;
July 18 - The enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR confirmed NKAR as an integral part of the Azerbaijan SSR;
November 27-29 - As a result of pogroms against Azerbaijani civilians in the cities of Gugark, Spitak and Stepanavan of the Armenian SSR, 33 people were killed;
December - More than 220.000 ethnic Azerbaijanis were forced to leave their homelands in the Armenian SSR;
July 29 - The railway link from Azerbaijan to Armenia was closed because of the attacks to the trains in the territory of Armenia. Beginning of the isolation of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan by Armenia;
December 1 - The Supreme Council of the Armenian SSR passed a resolution "on reunification of the Armenian SSR and NKAR"; thus in violence of all basic norms and principles of international law, Armenia officially declared its claim against the territorial integrity of the neighboring state;
January 13 - Disarmament of the Baky police by the order of USSR Interior Office. Due to this, following next days (13-16 January) it was impossible to prevent disorders in Baky;
January 20 - The Soviet Army invaded Baky and massacred hundreds of local civilians. Children, women and elderly people were the first victims of this vandalism. Official statistics claims around 150 people died, 700 injured;
September 2 - Armenians declared the establishment of the so-called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)" in the territory of Mountainous Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The illegal armed groups of about 15.000 people were formed as a "self-defense forces of NKR";
September 23 - Meeting of Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in Zheleznovodsk (Russia) mediated by the Russian and Kazakhstan Presidents. An agreement was reached to settle the conflict in a peaceful way;
October-November - In despite of the reached agreement, Armenian armed forces launched massive attacks against Azerbaijani population of the Khodjavand/Martuni and Hadrut districts of the NKAR. About 30 villages were occupied and devastated and inhabitants were driven out of their homes;
November 20 - Armenian terrorists opened a fire at the civilian helicopter "MI-8", which was carrying a group of high ranking people from Russia and Kazakhstan and senior leadership of Azerbaijan near the village of Garakend of the Khodjavand district (NKAR). The murder of 22 people was an end of the first attempt for the peaceful settlement of the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict undertaken in Zheleznovodsk and gave an impetus to further escalation of violence;
January 30-31 - The second meeting of the CSCE Council in Prague. Azerbaijan and Armenia got admitted to the CSCE;
February 25-26 - A while after the accession of Armenia to the CSCE, the armed forces of this state committed an act of genocide against civilian population of Khojali, Azerbaijani town within the former NKAR. With substantial support of the regiment #366 of Russia (deployed in Khankendi), the Armenian army brutally killed 613 people (among them, 63 children, 106 women, 70 elders) and destroyed this town. 487 people were wounded (including 76 children); 1275 persons were taken as hostages; 150 people are still missing;
February 28 - 7th meeting of the OSCE Committee of Senior Officials in Prague. It called the parties to establish a cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan without delay, respect inviolability of internal, as well as external borders, which can only be changed by peaceful means and with common consent, and refuse from all territorial claims, including abstinence from all the hostile propaganda;
End of February - Removal of the 366th rifle regiment of the Russian armed forces from Khankendi to Russia and illegal transfer of 25 tanks, 87 armored infantry fighting vehicles, 28 armored vehicles, 45 artillery mortar systems to the Armenian separatists;
March 11 - The declaration of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe expressing its deep concern about recent reports of indiscriminate killings and outrages, and firm condemnation of the violence and attacks directed against the civilian populations in the Nagorno-Karabakh area of the Republic of Azerbaijan;
March 24 - First additional Helsinki meeting of the CSCE Council. Decision to convene a conference on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict under the auspices of the CSCE;
May 7 - Meeting of the Heads of States of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Tehran with mediation of Iran. Meeting was devoted to the normalization of the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh and the peaceful settlement of the conflict. The Heads of States signed a communique at the end of the meeting;
May 8 - At the same time with signing of the communique in Tehran Armenia occupied the Shusha district of NKAR (91.7 % population of which was Azerbaijanis). As a result of the occupation of Shusha region more than 20 thousand of Azerbaijanis were expelled from their homeland;
May 17 - While discussions on peaceful settlement of the conflict in the meeting of the Senior Officials Committee of the CSCE in Helsinki were going on, armed forces of Armenia occupied Lachin region. As a result of this occupation 63.341 Azerbaijani civilians were forced to leave their homes;
September 19 - Agreement on cessation of all military actions for two months period (with later prolongation clause) was reached in Sochi (Russia) by Defense Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan;
December 9-12 - Violating the agreement reached in Sochi, Armenia occupied 8 villages of Zangilan district of Azerbaijan;
March 27-April 3 - At the same time with the peace talks in Geneva, Armenia occupied Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan. 60.698 Azerbaijanis were driven out of their permanent residences;
April 6 - The President of the UN Security Council made a statement condemning the occupation of Kalbadjar;
April 15 - The declaration of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on escalation of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The CM expressed its serious concerns on escalation of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and especially the extension of the combat zone to the Kelbadjar district of the Republic of Azerbaijan and endorsed the demand of the President of the UN Security Council for the immediate cessation of all hostilities and calls for the withdrawal of all forces which endanger the peace and security of the region;
April 25-29 - The Organization of Islamic Conference adopted a resolution strongly condemning the recent Armenian offensive against Azerbaijan and the occupation of Azerbaijani territories;
April 30 - Adoption of the resolution #822 by the UN Security Council, demanding immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from the Kelbadjar and other recently occupied areas of Azerbaijan;
June 11 - The Statement of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC): "We strongly support UN SC Resolution #822, which must be implemented fully and without delay by all countries and parties to the conflict. We call for the immediate cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of all occupying forces from the Kelbadjar and other recently occupied districts of Azerbaijan";
July 23 - Occupation of the Agdam district of Azerbaijan by Armenia, immediately after the visit of Mr. M. Rafaelli, the chairman of the Minsk Conference of the OSCE. 158.000 Azerbaijani civilians were forcefully displaced from their homes;
July 24 - Statement by the Chairman of the CSCE Minsk Conference on the offensive on and reported seizure of Agdam city (Azerbaijan);
July 29 - Adoption of the resolution #853 of the UN Security Council, which demanded "the immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of occupying forces involved from the district of Agdam and other recently occupied districts of the Republic of Azerbaijan";
August 18 - The statement of the President of the UN Security Council on full, immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the occupying forces from the Agdam district and other recently occupied districts of Azerbaijan.
August 23-26 - Despite the mentioned warnings, Armenia, continuing its aggression, occupied Fizuli and Jabrail districts of Azerbaijan. As a result, 209.985 Azerbaijani civilians were forcefully displaced from their homelands;
August 25-26 - Armenia ignores the request of the Chairman-in-office of the CSCE addresses to the Armenian President L. Ter-Petrosian on not advancing the armed forces for occupation of Gubadly and Zangilan regions of Azerbaijan;
August 31 - The occupation of the Gubadly district of Azerbaijan by the Armenian troops. As a result, 31.364 Azerbaijani civilians were displaced from their homes;
October 14 - Adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution #874, which called for "immediate implementation of the reciprocal and urgent steps provided for in the CSCE Minsk Group's Adjusted timetable, including the withdrawal of forces from recently occupied territories";
October 28-November 1 - Occupation of the Horadiz town and Zangilan district of Azerbaijan. 34.924 Azerbaijani civilians had to flee and leave their homes;
November 11 - Adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution #884, which condemned the occupation of Zangilan district and the Horadiz town, attacks on civilians and bombardments of the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan and demanded the unilateral withdrawal of occupying forces from the Zangilan district and Horadiz, and the withdrawal of occupying forces from other recently occupied areas of the Azerbaijani Republic;
January 10-11 - The Heads of State and Government of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council adopted a declaration where they "condemned the use of force for territorial gains. Respect for the territorial integrity, independence and sovereignty of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia is essential to the establishment of peace, stability and cooperation in the region…";
April 15 - CIS Declaration on respect to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders of the participating states of the CIS. Armenia was the only CIS country, who did not join the declaration;
May 12 - Agreement on cease-fire entered into force;
June 9-10 - The Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council adopted a declaration where the ministers "agreed that implementation of an effective cease-fire and constructive negotiations in a spirit of compromise are essential to create the conditions necessary for a step-by-step peace process leading to a permanent solution, including the de-escalation of the conflict and the withdrawal of forces from areas occupied by force and the return of displaced persons to their homes in accordance with the relevant UN Security Council resolutions…";
December 5-6 - CSCE Budapest Summit. A decision on "Intensification of CSCE action in relation to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict" was adopted. In accordance with this document the institute of Co-Chairs of the Minsk Conference was established "to conduct speedy negotiations for the conclusion of a political agreement on cessation of the armed conflict, the implementation of which, will eliminate major consequences of the conflict for all parties and permit the convening of the Minsk Conference". Thereby, the Budapest Summit adopted a two-stage legal framework of the settlement process: 1) first stage - elimination of consequences of the armed conflict by implementation of the agreement, i.e., full liberation of all occupied territories and ensuring return of IDPs to their homes; 2) second stage - convening Minsk Conference for final, comprehensive settlement of the conflict. The Budapest Summit also adopted a decision to establish an OSCE peacekeeping operation after the conclusion of the political agreement;
Negotiations on elaboration of the agreement on cessation of the conflict.
December 2-3 - OSCE Lisbon Summit. The OSCE Chairman-in-Office has made a statement supported by all (53) OSCE member states except Armenia, on three principles for the settlement of the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan: 1) territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Republic; 2) legal status of Nagorno-Karabakh defined in an agreement based on self-determination which confers on Nagorno-Karabakh the highest degree of self-rule within Azerbaijan; 3) guaranteed security for Nagorno-Karabakh and its whole population, including mutual obligations to ensure compliance by all the parties with the provisions of the settlement;
January - An institute of "triple" Co-Chairmanship of the OSCE Minsk Conference (Russia, USA and France) was introduced;
April 2 - The report of the Chairman of the Defense Committee of the State Duma, Mr. Lev Rokhlin on an illegal delivery of the Russian weapons to Armenia worth of one billion USD. Later on, Mr. Rokhlin got killed in unknown circumstances;
April 22 - Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted a Resolution (1119) on the conflicts in Transcaucasus, where it stressed the settlement of the conflicts in the region has to be on the basis of the principles set out in the 1975 Helsinki Final Act and the 1990 Paris Charter:
i. inviolability of borders;
ii. guaranteed security for all peoples in the areas concerned, particularly through multinational peacekeeping forces;
iii. extensive autonomy status for Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh to be negotiated by all the parties concerned;
iv. right of return of refugees and displaced persons and their reintegration respecting human rights.
June 1 - The Co-chairmen introduced a "package plan" for the settlement of the conflict. The basic idea behind the proposal was to work in parallel negotiations on two core issues of the confrontation: withdrawal of the armed forces from occupied regions and elaboration of the status of Nagorno-Karabakh. Unlike Armenia, who refused this plan, Azerbaijan accepted the proposal with some exceptions;
September 19 - The Co-chairmen introduced "step-by-step" settlement plan. This plan envisaged two-staged conflict settlement according to the following scheme: On the first stage - withdrawal of occupying armed forces from six districts, which are outside of the former NKAO (except Lachin district), return of civilian population and restoration of the main communication links in the conflict area; on the second stage - definition of the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh as well as of Lachin and Shusha;
October 10 - Strasbourg Joint Statement of the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia on supporting the plan for "step-by-step" settlement of the conflict;
L. Ter-Petrosian noted the importance of the step-by-step resolution of the conflict in his article "War or Peace". Later, he had to resign under the pressure of the political-military circles. The Prime Minister R. Kocharyan (a resident of the Mountainous Karabakh region of Azerbaijan and leader of separatists until before this appointment) became an acting President of the country. Short after his victory in the presidential elections, the position of Armenia on the settlement of the conflict became tougher.
Between 1997-2002, no meeting of the OSCE Minsk Group was held in full composition.
April-May - Armenia officially declared about the renunciation of the consent of the former President of the Republic on the step-by-step settlement;
November 9 - The Co-chairmen brought forward a new plan for the settlement, called a "common state". Azerbaijani side refused to accept this proposal as a basis for the negotiations because of its inconsistence with the norms and principles of international law as well as the national legislation. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to resume negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group framework, on the basis of the previous proposal of the co-chairmen, on the step-by-step settlement plan;
Direct talks between the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Up to date, they have met more than 20 times. No results have been achieved so far.
March 8 - In search of the advancing the peace process, the Co-chairmen suggested to appoint Special Representatives of the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia for negotiations on the conflict. The Special Representatives met three times during a year, twice in Prague - in May and July and once in Vienna - in November;
July 12 - In the final document of the EU-Azerbaijan Cooperation Committee, the EU reaffirmed its support to the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan as the basis for the peaceful solution of the conflict;
August 2 - The EU condemned holding of the so-called "presidential elections" in Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
January 23 - An Enlarged Bureau of the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers held a special session in Strasburg on the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken by Azerbaijan and Armenia to peacefully settle the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict.
January 30 - The Secretary General of the Council of Europe voiced regret at the recent declaration on "ethnic incompatibility between Armenians and Azerbaijanis", made by President Kocharian of Armenia. "Recalling dark pages of European history will never be a good electoral strategy", underlined Walter Schwimmer in reference to the upcoming presidential elections in Armenia, scheduled for 19 February.
February 19 - March 5 The presidential elections in Armenia.
first round - second round R. Kocharyan was elected as the president of the Republic of Armenia for his second term. The observers of OSCE/ODIHR, CE Parliamentary Assembly reported that the elections were held with serious irregularities.
June 19 - The coalition government of Armenia submitted its action plan for the next four years to the parliament. The section "Defense and Security" of this program states that, "as in previous years, the government sees the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh problem within peace negotiation process, emphasizing international recognition of the right of the "Artsakh" (Nagorno-Karabakh) people to self-determination and security guarantees of the population of the "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". The very possibility of subordination of the "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic" to Azerbaijan is ruled out."
During the presentation of the program, the Armenian Prime Minister A.Markaryan, speaking about the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict, said: "Karabakh must not be part of Azerbaijan, must have a common border with Armenia and that the self-determination of the Karabakh Armenians must be recognized by the world".
August 19 - During monitoring held by the Office of Personal Representative of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office on the Armenia-Azerbaijan border in the Tovuz region of Azerbaijan the Armenian side again broke ceasefire regime, as a result of which the monitoring process was immediately stopped. Unfortunately, the Personal Representative of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office Andrzej Kasprczyk refused to mention this fact in his information report.
September - Co-chairmen of the OSCE Minsk Group from Russia N.Gribkov was replaced by Y.Merzlyakov. During his visit to the region he held series of meetings with Azerbaijani officials on September 3-5.
October 15 - The presidential elections in Azerbaijan.
Ilham Aliyev was elected as the president of the Republic of Azerbaijan for his first term.
December 11 - The first meeting of the President of Azerbaijan Mr. I.Aliyev with his Armenian counterpart in Geneva.
April 16 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Cochairmen in Prague.
April 28-30 - The meeting of the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in Warsaw.
May 12-13 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Cochairmen in Strasbourg.
June 21 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Cochairmen in Prague.
June 28/29 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with the presence of the Turkish Foreign Minister Mr. Abdullah Gul in Istanbul
August 3-12 - Command staff exercises conducted by Armenian armed forces in the occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan in its statement drew the attention of the international community to the fact that conducting of these exercises is another obvious evidence of the aggression by the Republic of Armenia against the Republic of Azerbaijan, and of occupation of its territories.
August 8 - "elections" to the "local self-government bodies" were held by the authorities of the Armenian separatist regime in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan.
In the statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan it was noted that such kind of "elections" may not pretend to have a single piece of legitimacy because they are in complete contradiction with the norms of international law, as well as with the national legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan, since they are being held in conditions of continuing aggression, occupation and forceful expulsion of one third of the indigenous population of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani origin.
August 30 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Cochairmen in Prague.
September 15 - The meeting of the Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan within the CIS Summit in Astana. The President of Armenia Robert Kocharian requested to delay the following Prague meeting (25th of October 2004) of the Foreign Ministers of Azerbaijan and Armenia for need to analyze and comprehend the results of the previous four meetings of FMs.
October 14 - Azerbaijan requested the inclusion of an additional item in the agenda of the fifty-ninth session of the UN General Assembly, entitled "The situation in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan".
October 29 - Acting on the recommendations of its General Committee, the UN General Assembly decided to include an additional item on its current agenda entitled "The situation in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan". It took that decision by a recorded vote of 43 in favour to 1 against (Armenia) with 99 abstentions.
November 19 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Berlin.
November 23 - Additional item #163 "The situation in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan" was debated on the 59th session of UN General Assembly. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan gave a speech concerning the content of the additional item and illegal activities of Armenia in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan.
December 5 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Cochairmen in Sofia.
December 6-7 - The meeting of the 12th OSCE Ministerial Council in Sofia. The adoption of the Ministerial Council statement on the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which "commend the progress achieved in the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in 2004, in particular, the three meetings of the Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan under the auspices of the Co-Chairmen of the OSCE Minsk Group and welcome the creation of the so-called "Prague Process", through which four meetings between the Foreign Ministers of both countries allowed the methodical re-examination of all the parameters of a future settlement".
December 9 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Brussels in the framework of NATO EAPC Ministerial.
January 11 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairmen in Prague.
January 25 - Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, based on the report prepared by the Rappourter of Political Affairs Committee D. Atkinson (UK), adopted Resolution 1416 and Recommendation 1690 on the conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region dealt with by the OSCE Minsk Conference. In Resolution 1416, it is stated that "considerable parts of the territory of Azerbaijan are still occupied by Armenian forces and separatist forces are still in control of the Nagorno-Karabakh region" and that "the occupation of foreign territory by a member state constitutes a grave violation of that state's obligations as a member of the Council of Europe and reaffirms the right of displaced persons from the area of conflict to return to their homes safely and with dignity".
January 30 - February 5 - The visit by the "OSCE Minsk Group Fact-Finding Mission on Settlements in the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan" to the occupied territories - Aghdam, Jabrayil, Fizuli, Zangilan, Gubadly, Kalbajar and Lachin - of Azerbaijan.
March 2 - The meeting of the Foreign Minister of Azerbaijan with the OSCE Minsk Group Co-chairs in Prague.
March 17 - "OSCE Minsk Group Fact-Finding Mission on Settlements in the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan" presented its report on the settlements in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan to the OSCE Permanent Council. In its report, the Mission revealed the process of the transfer of population in number of more than 17,000 persons in the occupied territories, found out that Lachin province of Azerbaijan is being populated up to 11,000 persons and confirmed Azerbaijan's concerns on this matter. The OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairs based on this report recommended that "any further settlement of the occupied territories should be discouraged" to "avoid changes in the demographic structure of the region" and decided to keep this issue on the agenda for further review.
April 15 - The meeting of the Foreign Minister of Azerbaijan with the OSCE Minsk Group Co-chairs in London.
April 27 - The meeting of the Foreign Minister of Azerbaijan with the OSCE Minsk Group Co-chairs in Frankfurt.
May 15 - The meeting of the Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan within the Council of Europe Summit in Warsaw.
June 17 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Co-chairs in Paris.
June 19 - "Elections" to the "parliament" were held by the authorities of the Armenian separatist regime in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan.
In its statement, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan noted that such kind of "elections" may not pretend to have a single piece of legitimacy because they are in complete contradiction with the norms of international law, as well as with the national legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan, since they are being held in conditions of continuing aggression, occupation and ethnic cleansing. It states that such activities by Armenian side do not fit with the spirit of negotiation process, esp. when there is a hope for positive step forwards and that continuous peace cannot be achieved without normalization of life and peaceful co-existence and cooperation of Azerbaijani and Armenian communities of Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
July 3 - OSCE Parliamentary Assembly Special Representative on the Nagorno Karabakh Conflict, Goran Lenmarker, presented his report on peaceful settlement of the Nagorno Karabakh conflict to the Heads of Delegations to the OSCE PA.
July 11 - The visit of the OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairs to Azerbaijan.
August 12 - In its Address to the voters, the Central Election Commission of the Republic of Azerbaijan notified of the start of functioning of Khankendi Constituency No. 122 and called all citizens of Azerbaijan of Armenian origin living in Khankendi, Shusha, Khojali, Khojavend and other settlements of Nagorno Karabakh regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan, together with their countrymen to exercise their voting rights in Khankendi Constituency No. 122 and Shusha-Fuzuli-Khojali-Khojavend Constituency No. 124.
August 24 - The meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan with participation of the OSCE Minsk Group Co-chairs in Moscow.
August 27 - The meeting of the Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan within the CIS Summit in Kazan.
1. Historical aspect
2. Features of terrorism
3. Armenian terrorism
3.2. Armenian terrorism as a part of the international terrorism
3.3. The support of international terrorism by the Republic of Armenia
3.4. Armenian terrorism against Azerbaijan
Annex 1. Chronology of terrorist acts against Azerbaijan
Annex 2. Bibliography on Armenian terrorism
Terrorism has always been a threat to human life, but nowadays its threat has even increased. Nevertheless, until recently the international community did not act jointly against terrorism. More often it were individual states that led the fight against terrorism on their own. Terrorist acts of September 11, 2001 in New York and Washington D.C., unprecedented by their scale, attracted the attention of the whole world community and resulted in the understanding of the necessity of a joint fight against this international evil. Since Azerbaijan has been the target of the Armenian terrorism, we deemed it necessary to touch upon this issue as a contribution to the joint fight.
1. Historical Aspect
History of terrorism dates back to the 1st century A.D., when the organization of zealots-sikaris began to function in Judea. At first members of the organization killed their victims with knives and swords, and then they openly declared a war. Their aim was to wage an uprising against the Greek and Roman rule in Judea. Uprisings instigated by zealots-sikaris resulted in the extermination of the Jews in Egypt and Cyprus, almost total exodus of the Judea population and the exile, which determined the fate of the Jewish people for the subsequent 2 millennia.
Ishmaelites-nazarites acted since 1090 to 1275. Their aim was to spread the ideology of a "pure Islam". They considered their own lives to be a sacrifice. Their terror targeted leading political or religious personalities, whom they stabbed in a broad daylight.
Robbers-stranglers were active in India from the XIII to the XIX century. Their main aim was to make sacrifices to goddess Kali. They strangled, dismembered, buried their victims and tried to prolong their death agony since they believed that goddess Kali was enjoying the sight of the sufferings.
At the end of the XIX century terrorism moved to Europe where a wave of political murders took place. In 1878 terrorists attacked Kaiser of Germany, King of Spain and King of Italy. In 1894 the President of France, in 1897 - the Prime Minister of Spain, in 1898 - the Empress of Austria, in 1900 - the King of Spain and in 1901 - the President of the USA were assassinated.
At the end of the XIX century a part of intellectual elite in Russia considered terror as the only effective way to modernize the Russian society. Members of the group "Zemlya i Volya" ("The Earth and the Freedom") created a terrorist group "Narodnaya Volya" ("People's Freedom"), the assassination of the Emperor Alexander the Second being the culmination of its activities.
Terrorism came to the USA with the Civil war. The organization named "Ku-Klux-Klan" was established in the South in order to resist the reconstruction of the South by means of terror. The anarchists led an active struggle in 1880s, especially in Chicago.
Since the 70s of the XX century the people, who had no direct links to claims and demands of terrorists, became their targets. The end of the XX and the beginning of the XXI century was marked by the intensification of terrorism.
2. Features of Terrorism
The term "terror" means "fear", "horror" in Latin. At present there's no generally accepted international definition of terrorism both theoretically and conceptually, and at the international legal level, although it is important for the understanding of the gist of this issue and for the struggle against it. In one case, the term "terrorism" is characterized as the use or threat of use of violence on a systematic basis for the achievement of political goals. To cause fear is considered to be essential at that. Negligence of the accepted humanitarian values and striving for openness are also characteristic of this(1). In another case, terrorism is defined as a threat or use of violence often against civilian population. It is used for political, but not military, purposes by groups too weak to mount open assaults. Its psychological impact on the public has increased because of extensive coverage by the media(2).
According to the Resolution on measures to eliminate international terrorism, adopted at the 45th session of the UN General Assembly on December 9, 1994, "criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them."(3)
In the legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan the notion of terrorism means the commitment of actions or the threat of committing similar actions, which cause mass extermination of people, corporal injuries, or any other damage to their health, or the destruction (damage) of their property or other heavy injuries with the aim of violation of the public security, spreading panic among the population or achievement of the adoption by the state bodies of decisions that meet the interests of terrorists(4). According to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, terrorism, i.e. explosion, arson or other actions, representing deadly danger to people, causing a considerable damage to property, or any other heavy consequences, if these are committed with the aim of the violation of public security, frightening of the population, or influencing the decision-making of the authorities in accordance with demands of the guilty, as well as the threat of committing the mentioned acts for the same purposes is the crime against public security(5).
Being violence (as military activities or a common crime), terrorism is a crime, and at the same time it differs both from the military activities, and from usual crime. Terrorism has the following features, inherent only in it:
• It targets peaceful civilians and therefore it differs from military activities during the war;
• Violence or its threat is applied with the aim of causing fear among the population and the government. Thus, it differs it from ordinary murder;
• Complete disregard of the moral values, since the victims, as a rule, cannot be the immediate cause of a terrorist act.
• Terrorism is committed by individuals or by groups;
• It pursues political goals.
Terrorists act within their own state, outside the state borders and in several states. They act on their own and/or with the support of a state. Their actions are directed against the citizens of one or several states. Today one can single out the following main types of terrorism:
• Terrorism, not supported by states. Terrorist groupings, which act autonomously without any essential support of any government;
• Intrastate terrorism. Terrorist activities of citizens of a certain country against compatriots. These are acts against citizens of another country, if they are at the terrorists' native land and are not main or selected objects;
• State-sponsored terrorism. Terrorist groupings, which usually act independently, but enjoy the support of one or several governments;
• Terrorism directed by states. Terrorist groupings, which act as government agents, permanently receiving information, material and technical supply and legal support from sponsor-government;
• International (or transnational) terrorism. It is terrorism when planning and implementation of a terrorist act is accompanied by the state border crossing. When defining international terrorism one takes into account the goal of a terrorist act, nationality of victims and the place of terrorist act. Commitment of such acts is usually planned aiming at the attraction of the attention of international community to the existence, motives for actions and demands of terrorists.
Terrorists use the following methods: murders, arsons, bomb explosions, hostage-taking, kidnapping, capture and hijacking of the vehicles, capture of objects, attacks and armed assaults, commercial or industrial sabotage, use of specific highly technical weapons and technology of high complexity, ecological terrorism.
3. Armenian Terrorism
Terrorism as a means of achievement of political goals is actively used by separatist groupings and countries, supporting them. One of these countries is the Republic of Armenia, which, using the situation of the Armenian minority as a pretext for the realization of its territorial claims to a number of states of the region (Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia) supports terrorist organizations all over the world, activities of which are directed against these countries.
The history of the Armenian terrorism dates back to the end of the XIX century. In 1887 the first Armenian party "Hnchak" ("Bell") was organized in Geneva on the basis of Marxist principles. The members of that party were exclusively the Armenians of Russia, who brought in it the militant revolutionary spirit. In 1890 the Federation of Armenian Revolutionaries" - the "Dashnaktsutyun" party was established in Tiflis with the aim of uniting all small terrorist groups and revolutionary circles. "Both of these groups wanted an independent Turkish Armenia in the six eastern provinces so it would become a national socialist state"(6). But it was an intermediary aim.
The programme of the "Hnchak" party stated that "the first goal of the party is to obtain the political and national independence of Turkish Armenia. …The methods to be used to reach this goal are propaganda, provocation, terror, organization, and the peasants and worker movement. …A special branch will be formed to organize these terrorist activities. …After independence of Armenia of Turkey, the revolution will be extended to the Armenia of Russia, and Iran, and a Federative of Armenia will be established."
The programme of the "Dashnaktsutyun" party envisaged the establishment of fighter groups and carrying out of organizational and political terror(7). At the beginning of the century the party formed a terrorist system "Nemesis", the representatives of which committed a number of assassinations of the former members of the government of the Young Turks(8). The programme of the "Dashnaktsutyun" set forth the task "to stimulate fighting and to terrorize the government officials, informers, traitors, usurers, and every kind of exploiter. …The Revolutionary Armenian Federation was a terrorist organization from day one. This would be the organization that would take control of Armenia after the end of World War I; they have continued state-sponsored terrorism to the present day"(9).
In the 90s of the XIX century the dashnaks carried out terrorist acts in the Ottoman Empire to achieve their political goals. It was the objective to stir the Christian Armenians and to inflame the Muslim Turks to react, so Christian European powers would become involved and establish an Armenian state. Armenian terrorists would provoke Muslims by ongoing acts of violence. Where the Muslims would respond, Armenians would cry out that "the barbarous Muslim Turks were massacring the innocent Christian Armenians"(10).
In the first two decades of the XX century the Armenian terrorism outraged in Azerbaijan. The next stage was in the 70s-80s, when the Armenian terrorism acted on an international scale(11). Since the end of the 80s the Armenian terrorism has moved back to Azerbaijan.
S.Weems is quite right when he notes that "terror and violence have been official policy of Armenians since the beginning of their nationalistic movement"(12).
3.2. Armenian Terrorism as a Part of International Terrorism
The end of the XX century was marked by the highest degree of activity of the Armenian terrorist organizations, such as the "Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia" (ASALA, established in 1975 in Beirut), "Avengers for Armenian Genocide" (established in 1973), "Group of June 9" (established in 1991 in Switzerland), "Suicide Squadron" (established in 1981 in France), terrorist activities of which was directed at the implementation of goals and demands of the Armenian political parties "Dashnaktsutyun", "Hnchak", "Ramkavar", namely:
• The recognition by Turkey, as a successor state to the Ottoman Empire, of the "genocide" of Armenians.
• The return by Turkey to the Armenian people of their "historic motherland".
• Reimbursement by the government of Turkey of the material compensation for the "genocide".
• The recognition of the "genocide" and territorial rights of the Armenians by governments of all countries of the world(13).
In order to draw the attention of the international public to the so-called problem of the "genocide of Armenians", the Armenian terrorist organizations tried to justify their terrorist activities by the struggle for the liberation of the motherland. "If we describe our goal as the recognition of the genocide, then it's quite natural that our movements will be conceived as an act of revenge. But if we clearly declare that our main goal is the liberation of our motherland, then the public opinion will not conceive our cause as an attempt to take revenge"(14).
The "liberation of the motherland" was supposed to be achieved by means of terror against innocent people all over the world. In his letter to Thomas O'Neil, the former Speaker of the House of Representatives of the US Congress, the former US Secretary of State George Schultz noted that "more than 50 Turkish diplomats and US citizens were killed by terrorists seeking the adoption of the accusation of the Turkish people in the organization of the genocide. These terrorists killed those Americans who cast doubts on the accusations in genocide"(15). Armenian terrorist organizations act in cooperation with other terrorist and criminal groupings. The following facts could be treated as an example:
• Involvement of the Armenian terrorist Hagop Hagopian in the massacre of the Israeli athletes during 1972 Munich Olympics, committed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) terrorists;(16)
• A declaration on the cooperation between PKK and ASALA in fight against Turkey was adopted on April 6, 1980 in Lebanon;(17)
• Support by ASALA to the actions of the organization "Jihade-Islami", which blew up the barracks of the US marines in Beirut;(18)
• Ties with the drugs baron Carlos, who in an interview to the Spanish TV said: "We have connections to the Armenian terrorist organizations. We help each other and closely cooperate".(19)
• Armenian terrorist Monte Melkonian maintained contacts with the representative of the organization "Fatah" Abu-Nabil, whose mission consisted of the conduct of terrorist acts in Beirut with the attraction of the Armenians. Abu-Nabil's activities were to recruit and to use the Armenians in favour of the organization "Fatah" under the personal guidance by Yasser Arafat. Regardless of their party membership, Armenians cooperated with the "Fatah";(20)
• In 1981 the Swedish police arrested a group of Armenian drug smugglers connected with the Armenian terrorists. "ASALA" repeatedly threatened the Swedish government demanding the release of the smugglers;(21)
• Explosions organized in 1986 in Paris with the help of Abu Nidal with the aim to compel French authorities to release two Middle Eastern terrorists together with the Armenian terrorist Garabedian;(22)
• At the Second International Conference of solidarity with the Armenian people, which was held on April 20, 1986 in Greece Bassam abu-Salim on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, headed by Georges Habash, made a public statement: "Doors of our camps are always open to the Armenian freedom fighters";(23)
• Joint exercises of PKK and ASALA fighters in Trodos mountains, Cyprus, with the assistance of military advisers of Abu Nidal;(24)
• Referring to the "Mossad", the BBC broadcast that Georges Habash, the leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, characterized operations conducted by ASALA and PKK as "extremely racist, extremely nationalist and fascist ones". Habash expelled from his camp those ASALA terrorists who were involved in drug trafficking;(25)
• A meeting of ASALA and PKK representatives was held in northern Iraq, during which ASALA representatives preconditioned the continuation of the support to PKK by toughening the activities of the latter;(26)
• Identification by the terrorist organization "Hezbollah" of Stefan Nicolian, the pilot of the "Cessna" airplane, who violated Israeli air space and was shot down by the Israeli Air Forces(27). It should be mentioned that as far back as in 1987 the Israeli Intelligence Service "Mossad" advised the Turkish Secret Police to carefully follow the developments in connection with the establishment of a close cooperation between ASALA and "Hezbollah";(28)
• The fact that the occupied territories of Azerbaijan are used by international terrorists and narco-mafia for production of narcotics, as well as a transit route for drug-trafficking are proved by the clash of interests of the international terrorist Monte Melkonian and those of the local Mafia bosses, as a result of which M.Melkonian ordered to burn cannabis plants;(29)
• PKK and ASALA finance their activities by transporting Anatolian and Central Asian opium in collaboration with Afghan drug barons in Afghanistan and Pakistan.(30)
Armenian terrorist organisations, cooperating with militant terrorist groups, were indiscriminate in the selection of their victims, not confining their violence to the Turks. The Americans, the Portuguese, the Swedish, the Canadians, the French, the Australians, and hundreds of representatives of other nationalities, who didn't favour their appeals, also became their victims.
A special attention should be paid to the connections with the terrorist organization "Al-Qaida" headed by Ussama bin Laden. These ties have been studied in detail by R.Novruzoglu and Y.Oguz. They note, in particular, that Lella Bagdasarian, a native of Armenia, fought in Karabakh in the women's sniper group of ASALA. In 1994 she moved to France. In 1999 she converted to Islam and headed the French branch of "Al-Qaida". Argun Israelian from Khankendi participated in the massacre of Azerbaijanis in Khojaly. In 1995 he moved to Syria where he was elected deputy chairman of the Washington branch of the "Al-Qaida" at the meeting with the ASALA participation. Michel Sarkissian, a native of Sumgayit, headed the "Sassun" branch and took part in the killings of Azerbaijanis in Karabakh. Since 1999 he headed the Cyprus branch of the ASALA. Since 2002 he has been working in the analytical office of the "Al-Qaida".(31)
On May 4, 2000 the branch of the "Vadi al-Qaid" company, belonging to Ibrahim bin Laden, opened in Yerevan. The company paid for the study of 9 Afghan students at the Yerevan University in 1994-2000, who were given the membership cards of the military brigade 005. The brigade has its branches in London, Yerevan, Paris, Washington, Teheran, Cologne, Russia, Argentina, Brazil, Georgia and is directly financed by Ussama bin Laden.(32)
At first glance sufficiently close ties of the Armenian terrorism with radical Islamic terrorist organizations can cause astonishment and raise questions. But the article published in the Paris-based Armenian newspaper "GAMK" contains a rather open answer, which deserved to be thought over:(33)
"There are American and NATO bases in Turkish Armenia. Therefore, the United States will oppose and fight any force that tries to upset the stability of that region and to change the status quo. In other words, to liberate the Armenian lands we will have to deal not only with the Turkish government but also the Atlantic Alliance and the United States.… A weakened NATO and a weakened United States would make it easier to liberate the Armenian lands… and would help free the Third World from the yoke of American imperialism".
Thus, the above-mentioned facts confirm that the Armenian terrorism is an integral part of international terrorism and transnational organized crime.
3.3. The Support of International Terrorism by the Republic of Armenia
Armenian terrorist organizations are powerful structures with respective units, equipment and information data. It is impossible to have and use all this on criminal purposes without state support. Armenian terrorist organizations enjoy a full support of the Republic of Armenia. The following facts could be used to prove it:
• The former President of Armenia L.Ter-Petrossian interceded with the President of France for review of the sentence passed on Varuzhan Karapetian, one of the terrorists responsible for the terrorist act at the Paris Airport "Orly", where six people died, including a US citizen. After being discharged, V.Karapetian was received as a national hero in his homeland. Prime Minister of Armenia Andranik Markarian and a number of other officials of the Republic of Armenia characterized the activities of the terrorist as "patriotic ones";(34)
• Despite the efforts of the former President of Armenia L.Ter-Petrossian to suspend the activities of the "Dashnaktsutyun", having accused it of maintaining within this Party a secret terrorist service "DRO", involved in international drug business and illegal economic activities;(35)today members of this party are represented in the Government of Armenia. In particular, the minister of education and science Levon Mkrtchian and minister of culture, youth and sports Roland Sharoyan, who are members of the "ARF-Dashnaktsutyun" party. If one takes into account that one of the advisors to president is the ARFD leader Vahan Ohanessian, and another member of this party Hrayr Karapetian became the governor of the Aragatsotn marz (district), then one can claim that the organization, which under the previous leadership was in disfavour, "came to power";(36)
• In July 1998 Abdulla Ocalan, the leader of the Kurdish terrorist organization PKK, demanded that the leadership of the Republic of Armenia place at his organization's disposal a camp on the territory of Armenia;(37)
• Downstream of the PKK, the Kurdistan Popular Liberation Army (ARGK), under the command of Cemil Bayik, leads the armed struggle in Turkey. ARGK, which the PKK developed during the course of the war, has now, according to A.Ocalan, 15000 fighters, including 4000 women. The militants are rather young and little or not educated: workers, peasants, unemployed. They are recruited sometimes voluntarily, sometimes not and trained at the guerilla in the Party's camps abroad, namely, in the uncontrolled zone, north of Iraq, in Iran or at the confines of Armenia and Azerbaijan.(38)
• In 2000-2001 according to court decision 16 PKK members, who tried to go from Iran through Azerbaijan to Armenia and back, were imprisoned.(39)
• on May 9, 2002 the government of the United States of America charged some enterprises of Armenia for the fine because of the sale of equipment and technology to Iran, what violates Act of 2000 on Iran about non-proliferation.(40)
It is hard to believe that these enterprises acted without the knowledge of the Armenian government.
All this is by no means a complete list of facts confirming the support of the Republic of Armenia to international terrorism.
There are a lot of states in the world, which pursue the policy of granting asylum and justifying terrorism, create all conditions for terrorists to have a rest and receive medical treatment, provide them political cover after they commit terrorist acts in other states, encourage dirty information campaigns aimed at justifying terrorism. Still more dangerous are the attempts to create an image of "national heroes", "fighters for the just cause" for terrorists, favouring the upbringing of the younger generation in the spirit of terrorist struggle traditions. One of such states is the Republic of Armenia which pursues the state policy for the rehabilitation of the international Armenian terrorist group activists, who have committed explosions in the 70s-80s at the "Orly" airport and at the Moscow underground, assassinations of Turkish diplomats in Switzerland and Greece, seizure of Turkish embassy in Paris and a number of other crimes.(41)
3.4. Armenian Terrorism against Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan became an object of Armenia terrorism already since the beginning of XX century. The terror acts reached their strong swing during first Russian revolution in 1905-1907 and in 1918-1920. Armenian scapegraces acted with special cruelty. They spare neither olds nor women and children, leaving burned and destroyed villages.(42)
Since the end of the 80s of the XX century Azerbaijan has again become the main target of the Armenian terrorism. Terrorist acts were carried out against the civilian population both on the territory of Azerbaijan and out of it. As a result of crimes committed by the Armenian terrorists from 1989 to 1994 over 2 thousand civilians of the Republic of Azerbaijan, mainly women, the elderly people, and the children, died; tens of thousands were wounded and became invalids. (See Annex I).
Armenia stood behind these crime and these terrorist acts were organized for the realization of political goal - the seizure of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. After having been occupied by Armenia, this region of Azerbaijan together with Armenia and the Middle East became the place of deployment of terrorist organizations.(43) The documents prepared by the International Research Institute in Washington mentioned the existence of 21 training centers for PKK fighters in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. About 660 Kurdish terrorists were trained in the armed forces of the Republic of Armenia.(44)
According to R.Novruzoglu and Y.Oguz, Ibrahim bin Laden, whom we have already mentioned, elaborated a plan on the establishment of training camps in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan, in particular in Jabrayil, Zangilan and Gubadly. He invested 320 thousand USD for these purposes. Mark Sarkissian, head of a terrorist organization "Chegakron" situated in Khankendi since 1999, with the identity card, given by bin Laden, became the member of a radical organization "Armed Islam" (Algeria) and is a coordinator between the two organizations.(45)
The involvement of Armenia, to be more accurate, of its state bodies into the terrorist acts against Azerbaijan has been proved by numerous judicial evidences. Thus, for example, as a result of cooperation between the Azerbaijani Ministry for National Security and the Russian Federal Security Service a terrorist group of Armenian separatists headed by the chief of division of the Main Directorate of the National Security of Armenia, colonel Jan Ohanessian, his deputy, major Ashot Galoyan and the senior officer of the department for counter-terrorism of the Russian Federal Security Service, major Boris Simonian that acted on the territory of the Russian Federation, was called to account. This group, which was financed by the association "TIRR" stationed in Moscow and headed by V.Petrossian, organized explosions in several trains on the territory of Russia and Azerbaijan. All these persons were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment by the courts of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The fact of organization by the secret services of Armenia of the electric train explosion at the Baku underground on March 19, 1994 (14 persons died, 42 persons were wounded), which was executed by members of a terrorist and separatist organization "Sadval" that functions in Dagestan was proved during the court examinations. Numerous testimonial and material evidence directly indicate that the fighters of this organization were trained for military and subversive activities at the bases of special services of Armenia at the Lukoser settlement of the Nairi district and in the Arzni district of Armenia, as well as in camps specially built in the Maharramkend district of Dagestan. It were special services of Armenia that financed and provided all necessary explosive materials and technical means for the terrorist act. Azerbaijani special service found out 43 organizers and performers of that crime. 30 of them were sentenced by the Supreme Court of Azerbaijan; as concerns other persons, who are in hiding out of Azerbaijan, the search for them has been going on. The unusual character of this terrorist act is that the special services of a state, neighbouring Azerbaijan (i.e. Armenia), which occupied territories and sponsors the separatist regime in the western part of Azerbaijan (in Nagorno-Karabakh), organized training of terrorists on the territory of the other contiguous country (Russia) from separatists who claim a number of northern regions of Azerbaijan. This is a convincing evidence that the interaction of separatists of different ethnic origin is one of the most important constituent elements of international terrorism.(46)
Above we spoke of the policy aimed at providing asylum and justifying terrorism. Armenia pursues this policy with regard to terrorist organizations and terrorists, who were also involved in the act of violence against the peaceful population on the territories of Azerbaijan occupied by the armed forces of Armenia. This is proved by the fact that in 1993 the Iranian, Lebanese and Syrian "colleagues" of Monte Melkonian, the US citizen, who served his term in the French prison for the terrorist acts committed in Paris, who was involved in atrocities carried out by Armenians on the territory of the Nagorno-Karabakh and other regions of Azerbaijan and who was proclaimed a national hero of Armenia, attended his funerals together with Armenian officials, including President of the country.(47)
Another example. A well-known terrorist Grant Narkarian and Vazgen Sislian, one of organizers of the seizure of the Turkish embassy in Paris in 1981, were honored with the title of heroes of the Karabakh war.(48)
As a result of the cease-fire established in May 1984 and the measures taken by special services of Azerbaijan since mid-1995 the Armenian terrorist activity against the civilian population of Azerbaijan began to decline. But at the same time state organs of Armenia and the puppet regime in Nagorno-Karabakh made attempts to organize, to finance and realize this activity by means of using citizens of the third countries, the representatives of small nations of Azerbaijan, prisoners-of-war and hostages.
Thus, in training bases of the Armenian terrorists terrorist groups from separatist organizations of Lezghins, Avars, Kurds were set up, talks on the preparation of terrorist acts were held with the representatives of these groups and they were rendered every assistance. As a result of the examination of the persons put to investigation in connection with terrorist acts committed in September 2001 in the Zagatala region of Azerbaijan it became known that "defense minister" and other "top officials" of Nagorno-Karabakh took part in the preparation of the armed actions aimed at the unification of the northern parts of Azerbaijan with the Dagestan Republic of Russia and in the arms supply to the Lezghin and Avar separatists. Terrorists who committed these crimes visited repeatedly Yerevan and Nagorno-Karabakh, received a special training here; they were given weapons and money for the beginning of the actions on the establishment of a separatist Avar state.(49)
Magammad Ojagverdiyev, who was released from the Armenian captivity on November 3, 2001, said at the press conference held on November 23, 2001 that when he was in Armenia he was offered to commit terrorist acts against prominent public figures and politicians. In exchange he was offered a flat in any country and the money. When he refused he was tortured in the investigatory isolation ward of the ministry of national security of Armenia.
Terrorism is closely connected to transnational organized crime, illegal drug trafficking, money laundering, illegal arms trafficking and illegal transportation of nuclear, chemical, biological and other potentially lethal materials. This connection was referred to in the UN Security resolution 1373 of September 28, 2001.(50) This activity is especially seen in territories uncontrolled by states and widely used as transit corridors. Terrorist and separatist organizations carry out this kind of illegal activity for self-financing aims.
Armenia, as well as the puppet regime in Nagorno-Karabakh, continues to use the occupied territories of Azerbaijan as a transit corridor for the activities of transnational organized crime. They use these territories in the interests of the drug business, for illegal arms and human trade, money laundering and other illegal activities, the obtained profit being spent for the financing terrorism,(51) which is in its turn one of means of alienation of the Azerbaijani territory. In the "International Narcotics Control Strategy Report" of the US State Department of 2003 it is noted that the occupied Azerbaijani territories are used for drug trafficking. In 2001 in the Nagorno-Karabakh region 3,677 kg of hemp were seized.(52)
Moreover, the terrorists began to act in Armenia proper. The events of October 1999 in the Parliament of Armenia could be named as an example, when terrorists killed the speaker and a number of members of parliament, as well as the prime minister.
These facts let S.Weems come to a conclusion that "political assassinations are commonplace in Armenia today. The mayor of Yerevan, capital city, complained about corruption within the state government, and was murdered. Many individuals, who have attempted to object and speak out about state government abuse have been assassinated".(53)
As a form of extremism and violence, terrorism is a means in the hands of the groupings connected with separatism, destabilization, religious fundamentalism and political radicalism for the implementation of political goals. Terrorism, incompatible with the norms of international and domestic law, is especially brutal in carrying out its actions. Terrorism and those who commit terrorist acts undermine the very basics of morality and legality.
Terrorism was a means for the achievement by the Armenian nationalists of their political goals. It has become now an integral part of state politics of the Republic of Armenia. S.Weems noted that "since 1918 until today the two major exports of Armenia have been its own people, fleeing the "historic state" and terrorism. Since 1918 number one import of Armenia has been, and continues to be, foreign aid from other nations".(54)
All characteristic features and all type of terrorism pertain to Armenian terrorism, which uses practically all methods used by terrorist organizations. Armenian terrorism is closely connected to international terrorism and organized crime; it is their integral part. In 1973-2001 only in Western European countries Armenian terrorist organizations committed 235 terrorist acts, 70 murders, 41 assassination attempts. As a result of these terrorist acts 524 persons were wounded and 105 civilians were taken hostage.(55) Armenian terrorism is supported by the Republic of Armenia and is a part of its state policy.
Unfortunately, the Armenian myth based on the concepts of "Greater Armenia" and "Armenian genocide" fabricated by the Armenian ideologists, continues to serve, today as well, the instigation of hatred, evil and intolerance. Direct military aggression and terrorism with regard to the civilian population and civil installations are elements of common state policy of Armenia with regard to Azerbaijan. The Armenian terrorists committed the terrorist acts against Azerbaijan at the territories of the third states as well. The artificial prolongation by the Armenian side of the process of settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict is aimed at the aggravation of situation in the region. Armenia uses terror as a component of its state policy. All this creates serious threat to regional security. One thing is undoubted: the present-day Armenia, being the aggressor-state and the state, supporting and sponsoring terrorism and separatism, will act until the international community condemns and ceases to support its unlawful claims.
In conclusion we would like to remind of the statement by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan that "...Terrorism threatens every society. As the world takes action against it, we have all been reminded of the need to address the conditions that permit the growth of such hatred and depravity. We must confront violence, bigotry and hatred even more resolutely…".(56)
Chronology of the terrorist acts in Azerbaijan (1989-1994)
September 16, 1989
Passenger bus, moving on the Tbilisi-Baku itinerary was blown up. As a result, 5 men died and 25 got wounded.
October 7, 1989
On the southern outskirt of the Khankendi town of the Republic of Azerbaijan the Armenian terrorists blew up a car bridge on the Khelfalichay River. A criminal A.A.Abramian was sentenced by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan to 15 years of imprisonment with expropriation.
February 18, 1990
On the 105th kilometer of the Yevlax-Lachin highway a line bus moving from Shusha to Baku was blown up. As a result of this terrorist act 13 persons were wounded.
July 11, 1990
A car caravan loaded with the goods of national economy escorted by detachment was attacked between the settlements of Oktavan and Jiraktar in the Agdere district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. 3 persons were killed, 23 wounded. Criminal A.Ayrian was sentenced to extreme penalty with expropriation by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan on July 12, 1992.
August 10, 1990
As a result of explosion of a passenger bus moving on the itinerary of Tbilisi-Aghdam 20 persons were killed, 30 wounded. This criminal group also planned to organize explosion on the bus Aghdam-Tbilisi. On June 17, 1991 the group was arrested, its leader A.Avanesian was sentenced to extreme penalty, a member of the group M.Tatevosian - to 15 years of imprisonment.
December 15, 1990
Terrorist group, headed by S.Babayan and A.Ayrumanyan, killed 3 persons on a span between the Jamilli and Kosalar stations of the Asgeran district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan.
September 15, 1990
The Armenian terrorists blew up the broadcasting center in Khankendi. No victims were recorded.
January 9, 1991
A reporter of the newspaper "Molodyoj Azerbaydjana" ("Azerbaijani Youth") S.Askerova, militaries - lieutenant colonel S.Larionov, major I.Ivanov, sergant I.Goek were killed on the 15th kilometer of the road from Lachin to Shusha. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan sentenced criminals A.Mkrtchian, G.Petrosian, A.Mangasarian, G.G.Arutyunian and G.M.Arutyunian to be shot and other members of the terrorist group to different periods of imprisonment.
January 19, 1991
In Khankendi V.Bagmanian, A.Antonian and S.Bagmanian made an attempt upon life of major-general V.Kovalyov, chief of the Office of Internal Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region.
Near the Drmbon settlement of the Agdere district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan a group of terrorists, leaded by V.Galayan, committed an armed attack on autocade, moving to Kelbadjar. A driver of gasoline truck was killed.
Early in 1991
A.Bagmanian, S.Babayan, A.Abramyan and others killed head of the "Khodjali" airport.
April 8, 1991
A terrorist act was committed against deputy head of the office of internal forces on the Northern and Southern Caucasus colonel V.Blakhotin in Rostov-on-Don, Russia. The Court Board of the Rostov region sentenced criminals to different terms of imprisonment: A.Bagmanian and A.Antonian - to 15 years, S.Bagmanian - 12 years, K.Akopyan - 4 years, K.Yegityan - 2 years and 9 months.
April 18, 1991
As a result of an armed attack on motor-car the Armenian terrorists headed by G.Sarkisian in the Khojavend district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan, near the Amaras Church 3 police officers were killed. The same group blew up the bridge between Askeran and Aghdam.
May 9, 1991
The Armenian militants made an attempt upon Vladimir Polyanichko, one of the members of the Organizational Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region. In August 1, 1993 he was murdered as a result of terrorist act in the Northern Ossetia.
May 30, 1991
The Moscow-Baku passenger train was blown up near the railway station of Khasavyurt, Dagestan, Russia. 11 people were killed and 22 wounded.
June 28, 1991
A group of the Armenian terrorists made an attack on the Garadaghli settlement of the Martuni district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. 6 people out of the peaceful population were killed.
July 31, 1991
On the territory of Dagestan the Armenian militants blew up the Moscow-Baku train, as a result of which 16 people were killed and 20 wounded.
Summer of 1991
Khomich, major of the internal forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR was murdered on the highway Khankendi-Shusha.
November 20, 1991
"Mi-8" helicopter, with a group of eminent statesmen, political and military figures of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, as well as other officials and journalists on the board, was shot down by the Armenian terrorists over the Garakend settlement of the Khodjavend district of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. All passengers and crew died.
January 8, 1992
The Krasnovodsk (Turkmenbashi)-Baku passenger see ferry was blown up. 25 persons died and 88 were wounded.
January 28, 1992
A civilian helicopter, flying on the itinerary of Aghdam-Shusha, was shot down by the Armenian terrorists near Shusha. From 41 passengers on the board, mainly consisted of women and children, 3 were killed.
February 28, 1993
The Kislovodsk-Baku passenger train was blew up not far from the Gudermes station, Chechnya, Russia. 11 were killed, 18 wounded.
June 2, 1993
A passenger railroad car, standing on sidings, was blown up in the railway station in Baku. No victims were recorded. Criminal I.Khatkovskiy was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Azerbaijan in July 22 1994.
February 1, 1994
The Kislovodsk-Baku passenger train was blown up in the railway station in Baku. As a result, 3 people died and more than 20 were wounded.
February 24, 1994
A railroad car was blown up in the Khudat station. No victims were recorded.
March 18, 1994
The Armenian terrorists shot down the "Hercules" aircraft of the Iranian Air Forces, with diplomats and their families on the board. As a result of the terrorist act 34 people lost their lives.
March 19, 1994
An electric train was blown up in the subway station of "the 20th of January" in Baku. 14 people were killed and 42 wounded.
April 13, 1994
The Moscow-Baku passenger train was blown up in the railway station of "The lights of Dagestan" (Russia). As a result of the terrorist act 6 people were killed and 3 wounded.
July 3, 1994
An electric train was blown up between the "The 28th of May" and "Gandjlik" stations of the Baku subway. As a result, 14 people died and 54 were wounded.
Bibliography on Armenian terrorism
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5. FEIGL, Erich. A Mith of Terror. Armenian Extremism: Its Causes and Its Historical Context. Salzburg: Edition Zeitgeschichte, 1986.
6. GUNTER, Michael M. Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People: A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.
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23. SHIRAGIAN, Arshavir. The Legacy: Memoirs of an Armenian Patriot. S.Shiragian, trans. Boston: Hairenik Press, 1976.
24. SOMER, Tarik. "Armenian Terrorism and the Narcotic Traffic," Symposium on International Terrorism. Ankara: Ankara University Press, 1984. pp. 19-27.
25. SZAZ, Michael. "Armenian Terrorists and the East-West Conflict," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies (Winter, 1983): 387-394.
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29. The Case of Soghomon Terhlirian. Yeghiayan, Vartkes, trans. [A.R.F. Varantian Gomideh. Edited and Produced by the Zoryan Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts], 1985.
1. Graham Evans, Jeffrey Newnham, The Penguin Dictionary of International Relations (London: Penguin Books, 1998), 530.
2. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th ed. (New-York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 2718.
3. A Document of the UN General Assembly, A/RES/49/60.
4. Zakon o borbe c terrorizmom ot 18 iyunya 1999 goda, Sbornik zakonodatelnikh aktov Azerbaydjanskoy Respubliki, №.8, (Baku: Apparat Prezidenta Azerbaydjanskoy Respubliki), 1701-1708.
5. Ugolvniy Kodeks Azerbaydjanskoy Respubliki, Art. 214-216 i 219.
6. Samuel Weems, Armenia. Secrets of a "Christian" Terrorist State (Dallas: St.John Press, 2002), 16.
7. Suren Manukian, Respublika Armenia:organi vlasti,khronika sobytiy,politicheskie organizatsii,biografii (Moskva: Panorama, 2000), 92.
8. "The Armenian American Prosecution of Turkey: An Unjust Trial. C. Despite of the Verdicts of the Spurious Ottoman Courts and the Findings of the Malta Tribunals, Armenian Terrorists Have Engaged in a Vigilante War Which Continues Today," n.d., http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/arm_prosc.html
9. Weems, 55-57.
10. Weems, 16.
11. Chronology of Armenian terrorism in 1973-1993: http://18.104.22.168/asala/index1.html; http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/list_of_the_assasinated_turkish_diplomats.html
12. Weems, 36.
13. "Joint Communique issued by the Armenian Political Parties active in the United States of America," Armenian Weekly, 4 April 1987, p.8.
14. Karen Yeghparian, Ara Khanjian, "The Liberation of our Homeland," Armenian Weekly, 11 May 1985, p.2.
15. Letter of US Secretary of State George Shultz of November 25, 1985 to Speaker of the US House of Representatives, the Honorable Thomas P.O'Neill.
16. "Hagop Hagopian Said To Have Been Part of 1972 Terror Attack at Munich Olympic Games," The Armenian Reporter, 7 February, 1985, p.1.
17. "XXXVII. Could there be a connection between the termination of the terrorism by Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and the beginning of PKK terrorism in mid eighties?" n.d., http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/8572/xxxvii.htm
18. "Armenian Terror Group Supports Radical Moslems," The Armenian Reporter, 17 January, 1985.
19. "Columbia: The Carlos Connection," The Nation, 22 June, 1985, p.759.
20. "Rapport: redige par "Moudjahid" (Minas Ohanessian, egalement "Hagop Hakopian") du 1 Septembre 1983", "Hayastan", 119-120-1985, www.u-paris2.fr/mcc/html/archives/ne/ne1112/ne111206.htm
21. Mark S.Steinitz, "Insurgents, Terrorists and the Drug Trade," The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 4, (Fall 1985): 145.
22. "Jack Anderson and Dale Van Atta column entitled: "French Foil Turks' Hunt for Terrorist", Washington Post, 31 October, 1986, p.E5
23. Edward K.Boghosyan, "Radical Group Hosts Well-Attended Solidarity Meeting," The Armenian Reporter, 1 May, 1986, pp.1&18
24. The British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, July 6, 1987: Part 4-A: The Middle East, p. ME/8612/A/1.
25. The British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, July 6, 1987: Part 4-A: The Middle East, p. ME/8612/A/1.
26. "Asala and PKK hold a joint meeting in northern Iraq", Turkish Daily News, 13 June 2001.
27. "Israel shoots down Lebanese plane", Guardian, May 24, 2001; "IAF shoots down Lebanese civilian plane over Mikhmoret", Haarets, May 25, 2001.
28. "ASALA Cooperating with radical Lebanese," The Armenian Reporter, 9 July, 1987, p.1.
29. Mrkar Melkonyan, "Monte Avo Melkonian,", n.d., http://www.armenians.com/fedayi/Monte (September 1999).
30. Jeffrey Steinberg, "RIM: London's narco-terrorist international", Executive Intelligence Review, n.d. http://www.larouchepub.com/other/1995/2246_rim_intro.html (17 November, 1995).
31. Rovshan Novruzoglu, Yunus Oguz, Karabakh: Uncontrolled Zone… (Baku: Ozan, 2002), 81.
32. Novruzoglu, Oguz, 86.
33. Erich Feigl, A Myth of Terror. Armenian Extremism: Its Causes and Its Historical Context (Freilassing-Salzburg: Edition Zeitgeschichte, 1986), 122.
34. Anna Israilyan, "Ne aplodituyte terroristam," Aravot, n.d. www.aravot.am/2001/aravot_rus/May/10/st01.htm (10 May 2001).
35. Manukian, 95.
36. David Petrisian, "Komanda Kochariana nachinaet i ...," n.d., http://www.ca-c.org/journal/16_1998/st_09_petrosjan.shtml
37. "Armenian Issue, Allegations-Facts. Chronology," n.d. http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/turkce/khronoloji/index.html
38. Francois Haut, "Kurdish Extremism and Organised Crime: the Kurdistan Workers Party", n.d. http://mccccm.free.fr/pages_uniques/archives_bas2.html (3-5 March 1998).
39. "Zayavlenie Ministerstva natsionalnoy bezopasnosti Azerbaydjanskoy Respubliki," Bakinskiy Rabochiy, 6 June, 2002.
40. "US Penalizes Entities for Selling Banned Goods to Iran," n.d., (9 May 2002)
41. Namig Abbasov, "Terrorizm tesno svyazan s separatizmom," Ekho, 28 March, 2002.
42. Detailed information can be found: Prestupleniya armyanskikh terroristicheskikh i banditskikh formirovaniy protiv chelovechestva (XIX-XXI vv.). Kratkaya khronologicheskaya entsiklopediya (Baku: Elm, 2002).
43. Christos Iacovou, ASALA, Summary of Research "Asala: History and Ideology," n.d., http://www.armenians.com/asala/mainindex.html
44. "Karabagda 21 kamp. Guncel haberler. Kisa kisa," Zaman, n.d. http://arsiv.zaman.com.tr/1996/01/10/guncel/10kisa.html (10 January, 1996).
45. Novruzoglu, Oguz, 87.
47. Mrkar Melkonyan, "Monte Avo Melkonian," n.d. http://www.armenians.com/fedayi/Monte (September 1999).
49. R.Babayev, "Zagatalskiy protses zavershen," Ekho, 16 April, 2002.
50. Resolution 1373 (2001), adopted by the Security Council at it's the 4385th meeting, 28 September 2001, S/RES/1373 (2001).
53. Weems, 361
54. Weems, 106.
55. Arif Rəhimzadə. “Həyat bizi terrorizmə qarşı barışmaz mübarizəyə səsləyir” Dirçəliş –XX əsr, No 51 (May, 2002): 47
Kofi Annan, "Fighting Terrorism on a Global Front," The New York Times, 21 September, 2001.